References | Africa, south of Sahara

Technical Assistance to the Kenya Water and Sanitation Programme (KWSP)


Gender Equality, Water Sector Services, Good Governance and Public Administration, Natural Resource Management, Environment and Climate Change, Local Government and Decentralisation

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In 2005 The Kenya water sector underwent a radical process reform that was driven by its national policy on water resources management and development (1999) and its strategies on water resources management (2003) and water services (2003). These policies and strategies were backed up by a new Water Act of 2002 and a draft Zero Investment Plan (2003).

The main thrust of the reforms was to separate water resources management from water services delivery and to focus the role of Ministry of Water and Irrigation (MWI) on policy. Twelve semi-autonomous parastatals were established and these parastatal bodies were to report to boards representing different stakeholder interests. Implementation was market driven and utilising water service providers in the private and non governmental organisation sectors. Perhaps one of the most radical aspects of the reform was that local government no longer an automatic right to regulating, developing and operating water services in their area of jurisdiction.

The Water Service Boards (WSBs) (eight) , the Water Services Trust Fund (WSTF), Water Appeals Board (WAB), Water Services Regulartory Regulatory Board (WASREB) and the Water Resources Management Authority (WRMA) were established and operationalised . MWI likewise underwent a process of major reorganisation.

The co-operation programme between Kenya, Sweden and Denmark was approved in October 2004, started in January 2005 and continues. The ORGUT support to the reform process through the KWSP was for a period of 5 years and ended in 2010.

The co-operation comprises support to 3 components:

  1. Rural Water Supply and Sanitation (RWSS)
  2. Water Resources Management (WRM)
  3. Water Sector Reform (WSR)

Development objectives of KWSP:

  • A rational and efficient framework to sustainably meet the water needs for national economic development, poverty alleviation, environmental protection and social well being of the people through sustainable water resources management.
  • Sustainable, affordable and safe rural water supply and sanitation facilities managed by communities with a special focus on the poor, women and other disadvantaged groups.
  • An enabling environment for the water sector that ensures effective and equitable delivery of water services and integrated management of water resources.